12/4/2019 0 Comments
Hitler Fascism and Mussolini Fascism - Essay Example
This research will begin with the definition of fascism as a form of totalitarian government, with an authoritative dictator who takes control of the entire nation, its people and economy. It is a political ideology with a radical nationalism concept, which initiates a â€˜revolutionâ€™ for promoting the fascist principles. Basically rejecting the idea of socialism, capitalism, and democracy, Fascism is anti-liberal in nature and has a sound emphasis on ethnocentrism and militarism. Benito Mussolini in Italy and Adolf Hitler in Germany are the two notable dictators, who embodied fascism in their countries and claimed ultimate power over it. The form of fascism adopted in Germany and Italy by these leaders greatly differed in various cultural, social, economic and political ideologies. The Italian fascism was shaped by Mussolini for his pursuit of nationalism while the German fascism was distorted to the social and political beliefs of Hitler. As defined by Roger Griffin, â€œFascism is a political ideology whose mythic core in its various permutations is a palingenetic form of populist ultra-nationalism.â€ It is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that arose during the World War period. The socio-political changes including the rise of socialism and communism in the aftermaths of the World War gave way for a new political setting in the name of â€˜Fascismâ€™ in Italy and other European countries. The rapid social upheavals as well as the devastation of societies and economy were the instrumentals to the rise of Fascism and Nazism in these countries.
The Fascist ideology established by Hitler was based on his own personal reflections, Mein Kampf, which means My Struggle, written during his days before hailing power. On the other hand, Mussolini shaped his ideology after he took control over the Italian State. Mussoliniâ€™s Fascism stresses on dictatorship with extreme rights, typically excising power over the people and the nation, embracing an overarching state ideology. (Griffin, 1993).Similarly, Hitlerâ€™s Fascism favors aggressive nationalism, totalitarianism, fanaticism, and seeks blind obedience of its followers towards their authorities. Despite their different stands on espousing the ideologies of Fascism, they established it in a successful manner. â€œHitler and Mussolini were both dictators, both lead totalitarian regimes in their countries and cooperated together during World War Two.â€ (Husic, n. d.).
In 1919, when Italy was devastated in the aftermaths of the World War, it prospected for a new political aspect, which Mussolini took it as an advantage to gain control over the country. Taking this perfect opportunity, he introduced Fascism into Italy and established his rule under the autonomy of the king. However, with his followers, he organized paramilitary forces which terrorized the country with violent attacks and ultimately, took over the sovereign government under his power. (Payne, 1983). Similarly, Hitlerâ€™s Nazism was the ideologies and policies of Fascism which stressed on the superiority of the Aryan people. Hitler called for the unification of the German-speaking people into a one single empire. He was determined in creating a racially pure state which led to atrocities like Holocaust. He organized various military forces to maintain his power all over the country as a fascist dictator. Unlike Fascism, Hitlerâ€™s ideology held racism as its prior importance while the state was at a secondary in preference.
Both Mussolini and Hitler had common socio-political viewpoints for dominating the world with their barbarism and fanaticism, which together created
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